DashainDashain also known as Bijaya Dashami is biggest festival of Nepal. Dashain sometimes called as Durga puja. Dashain is the 15 day longest festival of Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and some parts of Northen India. Dashain is the most auspicious and anticipated festival in Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and Northen India. All government offices, educational sectors and other private offices remain closed during Dashain. Dashain festival falls either in September or October, starting from the Sukla pakshya i.e. bright lunar fortnight of the month of Ashwin and ending on purnima i.e. full moon. Although Dashain is 15 days long most important days are first, seventh. eighth, ninth and tenth.
Newar community call Dashain as a Mwohni and Dashain is famous among Madhesi as a Durga Puja. Dashain is celebrated among different peoples with slight differences and interpretations.The tenth day called Bijaya Dashami hold special importances.
The significance of Dashain is it symbolizes the victory of good over evil. For Shaktism, Dashain represents victory of goddess Parbati. However among Hidus there are two different sayings. One is the victory of Durga over the demon Mahishasura. The first nine days symbolizes the battle between the goddess durga and demon Mahisasura. Finally, on the tenth day Durga killed Mahisasura. The second reason is the victory of Ram over the Ravan. Whatever the different reason is said to be, the main theme is a victory of good over the evils.
GhatasthapanaGhatasthapana is the first day of Dashain when people sow the jamara. Kalasha or a pot is symbolized as Durga and filled with holy water and covered with a cow dung and sewn with barley seed. The kalasha is placed in the center of a rectangular sand block. The ingredients used to sow jamara are wheat and maize seeds. The person who puts jamara worship by inviting Durga to bless the vessel. The ritual is performed on the day of Ghatasthapana in a certain auspicious time determined by astrologers. It is believed that Durga reside in the vessel during Navaratri. Room used for ghatasthapana is called dashain ghar and womens and outsiders are not allowed to enter. A male family member worships the Kalasha two times everyday i.e one time morning and the other at evening. The kalasha is kept away from sunlight and watered everyday. On the tenth day the jamara grow upto six inches long yellowish green grass. This sacred grass is known as jamara is kept on the head or ear after putting tika in the forhead on the day of Bijaya dashami tika. The dashain ghar is worshipped till the seventh day of the dashain.
FulpatiThe sevent day of the dashain is fulpati or Phulpati. The tithi is saptami in Fulpati. It is also sometimes called as navapatrika fulpati On the day of Fulpati Kalasha, banana stalks, jamara and ugar cane tied with red cloth and worshipped. There are nine ingredients of fulpati hence it is called as navapatrika. Navapatrika consists of banana plant, darim, stalk of paddy, haledo, manabriksha, kachuki, belpatra, ashok and jayanti. Banana plant represents goddess Brahmani who bestows peace. Pomegranate or darim represents Goddess Rakta Dantika who bless the worshipper. Rice stalk or dhanko bala represents Lakshmi goddess known as goddess of wealth. Goddess Durga grace the heledo or tumeric plant and put end to obstacles and hindrances. Goddess Cahmunda resides in the manabriksha and belived to put end to the evil. Ginger plant or aduwa represents Goddess kalika and believed that she blesses whole mankind. It is believed the in the wood apple tree or bel plant the Lord Shiva resides and being the favorite fruit of both Shiva and Bishnu.Goddess Sokarahita lives in the Ashok plant and finally Jayanti represents Goddess Kartiki.
Navapatrika is decorated outside the house and carried inside the dashain ghar. The fulpati is kept inside dashain ghar and worshipped along with the jamara planted in Ghatasthapana. Finally Navapatrika is taken out of Dashain ghar or pooja ghar on the 10th day and Bisarjan is done in Holy river.
The siginificance of Navapatrika or fulpati is to bring all the nine goddess in your home for luck and wellbeing. All the nine plants represent goddess and all goddess represents health, wealth and prosperity.
In addition, goddess of education and knowledge Saraswoti is worshiped. Besides Saraswoti puja people worship the utensils related to their profesions. For eg. tailors worships sewing machines, students worship books and study materials. Businessman worship scales and ledgers etc.
Maha AasthamiThe eight day of the dashain is maha asthami. On this day people sacrifice goats, buffaloes, hens and ducks in temples throught the nation to please blood-thirsty Kali. This day is also called kal ratri or Black night. After the offering of the blood to the Kali, the meat is taken into home and cooked as prasad. Before serving to family members prasad is offered in a tiny leaf plates to the household gods. It is believed that eating this food is auspicious.
The Goddess is in the form of 8 year old child with complexion as fair as a conch, moon and jasmine. Goddess clothes and ornaments are white and pure. Goddess has three eyes and four arms. Her right upper hand is in the pose of allaying fear and right lower hand holds a trident in it. The left upper hand holds a tambourine and the lower one is in the pose of blessing. All sins of devotees are washed away due to her worship. Her power is unfailing and instantly fruitful.
The astmani mantra is as follows:
श्वेते वृषे समारुढा श्वेताम्बरधरा शुचिः ।
महागौरी शुभं दघान्महादेवप्रमोददा ॥
Maha NavamiThe ninth day is called Mahanavami. This is a last day of Navaratri. The ceremonies and rituals reach to the peak on this day. Bishwakarma, the god of creation, is worshipped as it is believed that all the things which help is in making aliving should be kept happy. Artisans, craftsmen, traders and mechanics worship and offer animal and fowl blood to their tools, equipments, vehicles etc. It is also believed doing these worship brings wealth and removes accident throught the year.
Bijaya DashamiThe most important day in Dashain is the Bijaya Dashami. It is the tenth day of Bijaya Dashami or Dashain. On this very day it is belived that Durga killed the demon Mahesasura and Ram killed Ravana. This day is famous for putting tika and jamara on the head. On this day, a mixture of rice, yogurt and vermilion is prepared and called as tika. Elders put this tika and jamara which is sown in the day of Ghatasthapana on the forehead of younger relatives to bless them with healthy, wealthy and prosperity. The elders spell the mantra or blessing while putting tika
आयुर द्रोण सुते श्रेयम दशरथे , सत्रुक क्षेयम रघवे,
ऐश्र्वर्यम नहुशे , गतिस्च पवने, मानन्च दुर्योधने,
सौर्यम शान्त नवे, बलम हलधरे , सत्यस्च कुन्तीसुते ,
बिज्ञ।न बिदुरे, भवन्तु भबताम, किर्तिस्च नारायणे!
Ayur Drona sute sriyem Dasarathe, Satruk ksheyam Raghave,
Yaishoryem Nahushe, Gatischa pawane, Manancha Duryodhane,
Suaryam Shanta nave, Balam Haldhare, Satyaschha Kuntisute,
Bigyanam Bidure, Bhawanu Bhabatam, Kirtischha Narayane!
ॐ जयन्ती मङ्गला काली भद्रकाली कपालिनी ।
दुर्गा क्ष्यमा शिवा धात्री स्वहा स्वधा नमोस्तु ते ।।
Om Jayanti Mangala Kaali Bhadra Kali Kapalini
Durga Kshyama shiva dhatri swaha swadha namostu te
सर्व मंगल मांगल्ये शिवे सर्वार्थ साधिके । शरन्ये त्रयम्बिके गौरी नारायणी नमोस्तुते ।।
शरणागत दीनार्तपरित्राण परायणे। सर्वस्यातिहरे देवि नारायण नमोस्तुते।। सर्वस्वरूपे सर्वेशे सर्वेशक्तिसमन्विते । भयेभ्यस्त्राहि नो देवि दुर्गे देवि नमोऽस्तु ते ।।
रोगनशेषानपहंसि तुष्टा। रुष्टा तु कामान् सकलानभीष्टान्।।
त्वामाश्रितानां न विपन्नराणां। त्वमाश्रिता हृयश्रयतां प्रयान्ति।।
सर्वाबाधा प्रशमनं त्रैलोक्यस्याखिलेश्वरि। एवमेव त्वया कार्यमस्मद्दैरिविनाशनम्।।
सर्वाबाधा विर्निर्मुक्तो धनधान्यसुतान्वित:। मनुष्यो मत्प्रसादेन भविष्यति न संशय:।।
जयन्ती मङ्गला काली भद्रकाली कपालिनी । दुर्गा शिवा क्षमा धात्री स्वाहा स्वधा नमोऽस्तु ते ।।
देहि सौभाग्यमारोग्यं देहि देवि परं सुखम् । रूपं देहि जयं देहि यशो देहि द्विषो जहि ॥
Dashain is often said to be just after the season of harvest. But its not the case always, people still harvest after Tihar. All the farmers are happy and most households are filled with rice and gains. The season is called Sarad Ritu, which is the most pleasant time in the year. The season itself is a celebration. People have lots of rice in home this time of year.
People loves to play bamboo made swing and langur burja along with cards. For childrens Dashain is like buying new clothes, eating lots of meats and holiday mania. However for a poor people Dashain is as Dasha meaning curse because of poverty. There is a popular Dashain song by Yogeshwor Amatya with Deepak Giri and Deepa Shree Niraula: "Dashain Nai ho ki yo mero dasha farkiayeko....".
Festivals of Nepal
Nepali New Year
Aama ko mukh herne din
Buba ko mukh herne din
Udhauli Parba - Ubhauli Parba
Dahi Chewra Khane Din
Shree Krishna Janmasthami